April 2023

When Does Clubfoot Develop?

A common congenital foot condition is known as clubfoot. It is a birth defect that causes the infant’s foot to turn inward, forcing the bottom of the foot to face sideways. It happens during pregnancy and is a result of shortened tendons in the legs. Clubfoot is divided into two categories, and isolated clubfoot can also be referred to as idiopathic clubfoot, which is the most common type. Non-isolated clubfoot may be associated with additional health problems such as spina bifida or other defects of the brain. Research has shown clubfoot is caused by genetics or environmental factors, and the chances of this developing may increase with baby boys. Additionally, pregnant moms who smoke may double the chances of having a child that is born with clubfoot. This condition is generally diagnosed during pregnancy by having an ultrasound performed, which can help the parents to decide on a treatment when the baby is born. If you have determined your unborn child may have this condition, it is suggested that you consult with a podiatrist who can examine your child soon after birth and help you to decide on a successful treatment method.

Congenital foot problems require immediate attention to avoid future complications. If you have any concerns, contact Dr. Castillo of Bronx Foot Care. Our doctor can provide the care you need to keep you pain-free and on your feet.

Congenital foot problems are deformities affecting the feet, toes, and/or ankles that children are born with. Some of these conditions have a genetic cause while others just happen. Some specific foot ailments that children may be born with include clubfeet, polydactyly/macrodactyly, and cleft foot. There are several other foot anomalies that can occur congenitally. What all of these conditions have in common is that a child may experience difficulty walking or performing everyday activities, as well as trouble finding footwear that fits their foot deformity. Some of these conditions are more serious than others. Consulting with a podiatrist as early as possible will help in properly diagnosing a child’s foot condition while getting the necessary treatment underway.

What are Causes of Congenital Foot Problem?

A congenital foot problem is one that happens to a child at birth. These conditions can be caused by a genetic predisposition, developmental or positional abnormalities during gestation, or with no known cause.

What are Symptoms of Congenital Foot Problems?

Symptoms vary by the congenital condition. Symptoms may consist of the following:

  • Clubfoot, where tendons are shortened, bones are shaped differently, and the Achilles tendon is tight, causing the foot to point in and down. It is also possible for the soles of the feet to face each other.
  • Polydactyly, which usually consists of a nubbin or small lump of tissue without a bone, a toe that is partially formed but has no joints, or an extra toe.
  • Vertical talus, where the talus bone forms in the wrong position causing other bones in the foot to line up improperly, the front of the foot to point up, and the bottom of the foot to stiffen, with no arch, and to curve out.
  • Tarsal coalition, when there is an abnormal connection of two or more bones in the foot leading to severe, rigid flatfoot.
  • Cleft foot, where there are missing toes, a V-shaped cleft, and other anatomical differences.
  • Macrodactyly, when the toes are abnormally large due to overgrowth of the underlying bone or soft tissue.

Treatment and Prevention

While there is nothing one can do to prevent congenital foot problems, raising awareness and receiving neonatal screenings are important. Early detection by taking your child to a podiatrist leads to the best outcome possible.

If you have any questions please feel free to contact our office located in Bronx, NY . We offer the newest diagnostic tools and technology to treat your foot and ankle needs.

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Gout Pain Can Be Managed

Gout is a painful, inflammatory form of arthritis. Those affected will typically feel an intense stiffness in the joints of their feet, particularly in the big toe. Schedule a visit to learn about how gout can be managed and treated.

Many Reasons for Foot Pain to Occur

Many people experience foot pain, whether it is chronic or occasional. Foot pain that is felt every day may be a result of specific conditions such as arthritis, hammertoe, or having a bunion. Pain that is felt once in a while may come from wearing shoes that do not fit correctly or standing for long periods of time. Older people may have foot pain from a loss of padding in the feet, which helps to absorb shock. Blisters on the feet may be uncomfortable, and excess friction from the socks or shoes that are worn is generally the cause. Young children and teenagers may suffer from Sever’s disease, which is an inflammation of the muscles surrounding the growth plate in the heel. It affects active people in this age group, and parents may notice their child is limping. There are additional reasons to have foot pain, and it is suggested that a podiatrist be contacted who can pinpoint the exact cause, and offer you correct treatment solutions.

Foot Pain

Foot pain can be extremely painful and debilitating. If you have a foot pain, consult with Dr. Castillo from Bronx Foot Care. Our doctor will assess your condition and provide you with quality foot and ankle treatment.


Foot pain is a very broad condition that could be caused by one or more ailments. The most common include:

  • Bunions
  • Hammertoes
  • Plantar Fasciitis
  • Bone Spurs
  • Corns
  • Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome
  • Ingrown Toenails
  • Arthritis (such as Gout, Rheumatoid, and Osteoarthritis)
  • Flat Feet
  • Injury (from stress fractures, broken toe, foot, ankle, Achilles tendon ruptures, and sprains)
  • And more


To figure out the cause of foot pain, podiatrists utilize several different methods. This can range from simple visual inspections and sensation tests to X-rays and MRI scans. Prior medical history, family medical history, and any recent physical traumatic events will all be taken into consideration for a proper diagnosis.


Treatment depends upon the cause of the foot pain. Whether it is resting, staying off the foot, or having surgery; podiatrists have a number of treatment options available for foot pain.

If you have any questions, please feel free to contact our office located in Bronx, NY . We offer the newest diagnostic and treatment technologies for all your foot care needs.

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Gait Disorders in Seniors

Independent mobility is paramount to the quality of life for seniors. A senior’s gait and ability to rise comfortably from a chair, as well as walk and balance, are necessary for independent mobility. As one ages, their walking speed declines, especially after age 70. The speed of walking is known as gait velocity, which is a predictor of chronic medical conditions, hospitalizations, and even mortality. Calf muscles propel the body forward, and their strength lessens in older years. Many factors may affect the gait of older adults, including neurologic disorders like dementia, and musculoskeletal conditions, such as spinal stenosis. Seniors can participate in an exercise program that focuses on flexibility, strengthening, and balance to do what they can to maintain a good gait. If you are a senior, it is suggested that you see a podiatrist who can help you ensure the best biomechanics of the feet for a happier, healthier life.

If you have any concerns about your feet, contact Dr. Castillo from Bronx Foot Care. Our doctor can provide the care you need to keep you pain-free and on your feet.

Biomechanics in Podiatry

Podiatric biomechanics is a particular sector of specialty podiatry with licensed practitioners who are trained to diagnose and treat conditions affecting the foot, ankle and lower leg. Biomechanics deals with the forces that act against the body, causing an interference with the biological structures. It focuses on the movement of the ankle, the foot and the forces that interact with them.

A History of Biomechanics

  • Biomechanics dates back to the BC era in Egypt where evidence of professional foot care has been recorded.
  • In 1974, biomechanics gained a higher profile from the studies of Merton Root, who claimed that by changing or controlling the forces between the ankle and the foot, corrections or conditions could be implemented to gain strength and coordination in the area.

Modern technological improvements are based on past theories and therapeutic processes that provide a better understanding of podiatric concepts for biomechanics. Computers can provide accurate information about the forces and patterns of the feet and lower legs.

Understanding biomechanics of the feet can help improve and eliminate pain, stopping further stress to the foot.

If you have any questions please feel free to contact our office located in Bronx, NY . We offer the newest diagnostic and treatment technologies for all your foot and ankle needs.

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Osteoarthritis and the Feet

Osteoarthritis, or OA, is a type of arthritis that causes a gradual deterioration of the cartilage in joints. It is common in the feet, and it can lead to joint pain, stiffness, and reduced mobility. Osteoarthritis in the feet can happen from injury to the feet and chronic inflammation in a joint that results in wear and tear of the cartilage covering the joint. While there is no cure for OA, there are lifestyle changes and other options that may provide relief. Among them are low-impact exercises to build muscle and strengthen joints, maintaining a healthy body weight, and using orthotics in shoes. Surgery is also a possible treatment option for OA in the feet. Complications can arise from not treating OA, such as the development of bunions, calluses and corns, hallux rigidus, or stiffness in the big toe. If you suffer from osteoarthritis and it is causing pain in your feet or interfering with the quality of your life, it is suggested that you contact a podiatrist for a proper diagnosis and treatment options that may make you more comfortable.

Arthritis can be a difficult condition to live with. If you are seeking treatment, contact Dr. Castillo from Bronx Foot Care. Our doctor can provide the care you need to keep you pain-free and on your feet.

Arthritic Foot Care  

Arthritis is a term that is commonly used to describe joint pain.  The condition itself can occur to anyone of any age, race, or gender, and there are over 100 types of it.  Nevertheless, arthritis is more commonly found in women compared to men, and it is also more prevalent in those who are overweight. The causes of arthritis vary depending on which type of arthritis you have. Osteoarthritis for example, is often caused by injury, while rheumatoid arthritis is caused by a misdirected immune system.


  • Swelling
  • Pain
  • Stiffness
  • Decreased Range of Motion

Arthritic symptoms range in severity, and they may come and go. Some symptoms stay the same for several years but could potentially get worse with time. Severe cases of arthritis can prevent its sufferers from performing daily activities and make walking difficult.

Risk Factors

  • Occupation – Occupations requiring repetitive knee movements have been linked to osteoarthritis
  • Obesity – Excess weight can contribute to osteoarthritis development
  • Infection – Microbial agents can infect the joints and trigger arthritis
  • Joint Injuries – Damage to joints may lead to osteoarthritis
  • Age – Risk increases with age
  • Gender –Most types are more common in women
  • Genetics – Arthritis can be hereditary

If you suspect your arthritis is affecting your feet, it is crucial that you see a podiatrist immediately. Your doctor will be able to address your specific case and help you decide which treatment method is best for you.

If you have any questions, please feel free to contact our office located in Bronx, NY . We offer the newest diagnostic and treatment technologies for all your foot care needs.

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